Q: What is MRSA?
A: MRSA is an acronym which stands for “methicillin-resistant staph aureus.” Simply put, this is a name for a particular type of bacteria that does not respond to several common antibiotics. This type of infection used to be seen only in people with immune deficiencies or people who have been in the hospital, but it has become much more common and is now widespread in the community in otherwise healthy individuals.
It usually manifests as a skin infection in the form of boils or abscesses. It is commonly seen in hairy areas of the body and usually starts like a pimple. Often there is pus, and it is usually fairly painful.
You are at higher risk for MRSA if you have a household member who has a history of these infections, if you live in a crowded environment (a dorm, military barracks, jails, etc.), or if you have compromised skin in the form of simple cuts or scrapes. People are also at higher risk if they make frequent skin-to-skin contact with others (like athletes) or if they come in contact with possible contaminated surfaces frequently (like healthcare workers).
Your healthcare provider can figure out if your infection is due to MRSA through a wound culture (taking a swab of the drainage). Nasal passages, urine and or blood can also be cultured for bacteria, depending on the type of infection that is suspected. These tests typically take about 48 hours.Information from www.familydoctor.org, provided by Sally Bennett, PA-C, Mercy East Family Practice, 5900 E. University Ave., Suite 200, 643-2400.
Q: How does diabetes affect my eyes?
A: November is American Diabetes Awareness Month. The National Institute of Health and the American Optometric Association recommend yearly dilated eye exams for anyone with diabetes. Having uncontrolled blood sugar, coupled with a poor diet and not enough exercise, can result in diabetic damage to the tiny blood vessels in the eye.
In the early stages, small balloon-like pockets form in the vessels. Consequently, these vessels can become blocked, which deprives the retina of oxygen and nutrients. In the later stages, new blood vessels grow to help supply the damaged retina. These vessels, however, are abnormal and fragile. They leak easily, which may lead to blood filling the vitreous (the jelly-like fluid in the eye). Severe vision loss and even blindness can result. Fluid can also cause swelling in the macula, which is the central part of vision and is responsible for fine detail. This is known as macular edema and presents as blurred vision. This swelling can occur at any stage of diabetic retinopathy.
The National Institute of Health estimates that between 40 – 45 percent of Americans with diabetes have some degree of diabetic retinopathy or symptomatic disease. The resulting decline in eye health often has no early warning signs. If bleeding does occur in the back of the eye, you may see red specks or spots floating in your vision. Keeping a close watch on your blood sugar, eating healthy and engaging in regular exercise are the best ways to protect your vision from diabetic damage.Information provided by Dr. Matthew Ward, O.D. from Eye Care of Iowa, 5075 E. University Ave, Pleasant Hill 265-5322
Q: What else can I do for my headache?
A: The International Headache Society has identified 14 different types and sub-classifications of headaches. The most common types of headaches are migraine, cluster, tension and cervicogenic. It is estimated that 47 percent of the global population suffers from a headache, and 15 – 20 percent of those headaches are cervicogenic in nature*.
Cervicogenic headaches are caused by dysfunction of bony and soft tissue structures of the cervical spine, such as the upper cervical facet joints, upper cervical disc segments, muscles and ligaments. Physical therapy has proven effective in treating patients who suffer from cervicogenic headaches; so it is necessary to have general knowledge of different types of headaches in order to determine if the patient is appropriate for physical therapy.
A comprehensive physical therapy evaluation is performed to determine the specific symptom-generating structure. Treatment may consist of specific manual therapy techniques, neuro re-education, cervical stabilization exercises, and cervical proprioception, as well as other postural training. Success of physical therapy treatment for cervicogenic headaches depends on the thorough physical therapy exam and the successful execution of the patient-specific comprehensive treatment plan. If you have a headache that won’t go away, contact Accelerated Rehabilitation Centers in Altoona (515-967-4580) to schedule a complimentary evaluation and determine if physical therapy can help you.
*Page, P. Cervicogenic headaches: an evidence led approach to clinical management. The international journal of sports physical therapy. Sept 2011. 6 (3): 254-66.Information provided by Amy Jensen, DPT, Accelerated Rehab, 3160 Eighth St. S.W., Suite 1, Altoona, 515-967-4580.
Q: What is trench mouth?
A: Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, or trench mouth¸ is a painful form of gum disease that includes the destruction of gum tissue around the teeth and creation of crater-like ulcers in the gum that are filled with plaque and food debris. Other symptoms are a grayish film on the gums and a constant foul taste and breath. It is a rare disorder, brought on or exacerbated by factors including poor oral hygiene, poor nutrition, other infections in the mouth or throat, smoking and stress. The term “trench mouth” came from the condition’s prevalence among soldiers in World War I.
Your dentist may recommend a salt-water rinse to soothe sore gums and hydrogen peroxide rinse to wash away decayed gum tissue. If fever accompanies your condition, the dentist may also prescribe an antibiotic. The good news is that the condition normally responds well to treatment. Left untreated, though, the infection can spread to other parts of the mouth and jaw. Talk with your dentist about ways to keep your mouth healthy.Information provided by Des Moines Dental Group, 708 First Ave S., 967-6611.
Q: How can I avoid stress during the holiday season?
A: It’s that time of the year. The holidays are an exciting and joyous time, but for many they can also be a source of stress. It is easy to get busy and forget to take the time to care for ourselves. When we are under stress, our immune systems are compromised, leaving us more susceptible to illness. If your immune system is operating at its peak, it will be better able to adapt to its environment and fight off illness. A healthy immune system means high resistance to disease and infection, better ability to deal with stress, and greater health and well-being. Try these tips to manage stress and enjoy this holiday season.
• Take time out for yourself every day.
• Get adequate amounts of high-quality sleep.
• Exercise at least 30 minutes, three to four times a week.
• Supplement with Vitamin D daily.
• Laughing reduces stress, elevates the mood and improves cell structure.
• Breathe. Practice deep breathing to reduce stress and clear your mind.
• Meditation. Meditation improves immune function, reduces blood pressure and enhances cognitive function.
• Eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Avoid processed foods, sugar and grains as they decrease your immune function.
• Regular chiropractic adjustments boost your immune system, increase flexibility and create optimum nervous system function.